While many white abolitionists focused only on slavery, black Americans tended to couple anti-slavery activities with demands for racial equality and justice. 2. [2], European slave traders shipped more than 11 million across the Atlantic; 9.6 million reached the Americas. At the time of his death in 1799, he owned 200 enslaved individuals. How many abolitionists were there? [27], Number of enslaved individuals who escaped in 1850:  1,011 (1 for each 3,165 held in slavery, or about one thirtieth of one percent)[28], Fugitive slaves in 1860:  803 (one slave per 5,000, or one fiftieth of one percent)[29], Number of enslaved individuals who were freed by manumission, 1860:  3,000[30], Number of enslaved individuals who were manumitted in 1850:  1,309[31]. John Brown was a leading white abolitionist who engaged in many peaceful efforts to free and assist enslaved African Americans before … There were 434,449 free Blacks, for a total of 3,638,762. Population of the United States in 1860, p. viii. [43] Bureau of the Census. [15] Bureau of the Census. [36], Quakers originated the anti-slavery movement in the North American colonies. United States - United States - Abolitionism: Finally and fatally there was abolitionism, the antislavery movement. In 1838, there were an estimated 1,406 abolitionist and anti-slavery organizations in the United States, with approximately 115,000 members. One reason abolitionists are forgotten is that they were inescapably Christian in their motives, means, and vocabulary. In 1790, the first United States Census showed 757,181 Blacks, among whom 697,624 were slaves, 59,557 were free. By 1803, after Ohio had been admitted to the United States, there were nine free states and eight slave states. [16], In 1810, the third United States Census determined that there were 1,191,364 slaves and 186,446 free Blacks. In 1810, the third United States Census determined that there were 1,191,364 slaves and 186,446 free Blacks. William Shirer, CBS broadcaster and author (The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich). The abolitionist campaigned to stop it. Miller, Randall M., and John D. Smith, Eds., Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography, Illustrated List of Abolitionists and Activists, Abolitionist and Anti-Slavery Organizations, American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition, Slave Narratives and Books by Abolitionists, Abolition and Anti-Slavery Historic Timelines, http://hauensteincenter.org/slaveholding/. Population of the United States in 1860, p. xv. [10], Number of U.S. Presidents who owned slaves while in office: 8, They were: George Washington; Thomas Jefferson; James Madison; James Monroe; Andrew Jackson; John Tyler; James Polk; Zachary Taylor[11], When George Washington inherited Mt. There were sixty-five recorded North American slave revolts. On 18 February 1688, Francis Daniel Pastorius of Germantown, Pennsylvania, drafted the 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery, a two-page condemnation of the practice of slavery and sent it to the governing bodies of their Quaker church. [13]  Thomas Jefferson died on July 4, 1826. The reason that the slave states could dictate national policy was the direct result of the millions of enslaved individuals living within their borders. Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. But Enlightenment criticism had not been consistent. Vernon in 1752, it had 18 enslaved individuals. They were cooks, teamsters, builders, engineers, etc. More than three and a half million individuals were born into slavery. Number of enslaved individuals who escaped in 1850:  1,011 (1 for each 3,165 held in slavery, or about one thirtieth of one percent), Fugitive slaves in 1860:  803 (one slave per 5,000, or one fiftieth of one percent), Number of enslaved individuals who were freed by manumission, 1860:  3,000, Number of enslaved individuals who were manumitted in 1850:  1,309, Number of enslaved individuals in the United States in 1790:  697,897, Number of enslaved individuals in the United States in 1860:  3,953,760, Number of Blacks who emigrated to Liberia between 1820 and 1856:  9,502, of whom 3,676 were free-born. You see, there was no such thing as “freedom of speech” and “freedom of the press” in the Antebellum south as far as slavery was concerned. Agricultural crops that utilized slave labor in North America: Tobacco – Virginia, Chesapeake region, beginning Seventeenth Century, Corn – Virginia, Chesapeake region, beginning Seventeenth Century; later cultivated in Georgia and Mississippi, Rice – Low country of South Carolina, Georgia, 1725-1860s, Indigo – Coastal South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, 1740s-1790s, Long staple cotton – Sea Islands, Georgia, Short staple cotton – Sea Islands, Georgia, Lower Mississippi Valley, Middle south Carolina through East Texas, 1790s-1860s; short staple cotton utilized half the slaves in the South[7], Sugar industry – sugar cane; South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Southern Louisiana, Lower Mississippi Valley[8], Number of enslaved individuals in England at the time of the ending of slavery:  15,000[9], Total number of enslaved individuals in the British North American colonies and the United States between 1619 and 1865:  5 million, Number of U.S. Presidents who owned slaves: 12, They were: George Washington (between 250-350 slaves); Thomas Jefferson (about 200); James Madison (more than 100); James Monroe (about 75); Andrew Jackson (fewer than 200); Martin Van Buren (one); William Henry Harrison (eleven); John Tyler (about 70); James Polk (about 25); Zachary Taylor (fewer than 150); Andrew Johnson (probably eight); Ulysses S. Grant (probably five). Population of the United States in 1860, p. xvi. Vernon in 1752, it had 18 enslaved individuals. Total population of the United States in 1860, according to census reports: 31,443,321[21], The total number of enslaved individuals in the United States in 1860:  3,953,760, Enslaved individuals as a percentage of the US population in 1860:  13%, Increase in enslaved individuals in the US from 1850 to 1860: 23.39%, Number of free Black persons in US in 1860: 487,970, Proportion of Blacks in the US in 1860 who were enslaved: 89%. (2) DISCLAIMER. Many women joined abolitionist movement as a way to enter public life and have the opportunity to talk about controversial topics. 5 American Abolitionists Who Fought to End Slavery Many people. African Slave Imports into British North America and the United States, Including Louisiana. After the invention of the cotton gin in 1793, the production of cotton became much more profitable. Abolitionists were merely a small, albeit vocal, component of the Republican coalition. It was Section 91 of the Massachusetts Body of Liberties. [10] http://hauensteincenter.org/slaveholding/ downloaded 2/28/2015. August 20, 1619, is the approximate start of slavery in the British North American colonies. Population of the United States in 1860, p. xiv. The total economic value of the four million slaves in the United States in 1860 was worth more than all factories, railroads, buildings, and the entire economic output. The answer is simple. [35], Abolition and Anti-Slavery Movements in the United States, There were no anti-slavery societies, newspapers, or magazines before the American Revolution. In 1837, there were 1,006 abolitionist groups in the United States. [19] Bureau of the Census. They were: George Washington (between 250-350 slaves); Thomas Jefferson (about 200); James Madison (more than 100); James Monroe (about 75); Andrew Jackson (fewer than 200); Martin Van Buren (one); William Henry Harrison (eleven); John Tyler (about 70); James Polk (about 25); Zachary Taylor (fewer than 150); Andrew Johnson (probably eight); Ulysses S. Grant (probably five). In 1792, New Hampshire abolished slavery. In 1838, there were an estimated 1,406 abolitionist and anti-slavery organizations in the United States, with approximately 115,000 members. And what happened to them? Countless generations of enslaved families were separated forever. They were David Walker, Frederick Douglass , and Sojourner Truth. On July 29, 2008, the United States House of Representatives issued an apology for slavery in the form of House Resolution 194. The enslaved populations by state in the South in 1860 were: The enslaved populations by state in the Border States in 1860 were: Enslaved population in major Southern cities in 1860: These states had 45 congressional representatives and 14 senators. The enslaved individuals residing in the South gave the South a disproportionate representation in Congress. [30] Bureau of the Census. Long, E. B., with Barbara Long. The breeding of enslaved individuals for labor and for sale became ever more widespread. World History Group Washington: Government Printing Office, 1864, p. ix. The three best known were led by Gabriel Prosser (1800), Nat Turner (1831) and Denmark Vesey (1822). Thomas Jefferson was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1769. Population of the United States in 1860, p. ix. The resolution provides: “(1) apology for the enslavement and segregation of African-Americans. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. More than half died before they reached the coast. Jon Guttman Blacks constituted 18.1% of the national population. In 1835, there were 225 abolitionist and anti-slavery societies in the United States. Many abolitionists wanted to transport all the slaves to Africa after liberating them. It was called the “Middle Passage.”  It took as long as 10 weeks. They were 19% of the total population. [3], Between 1 million and 2.2 million enslaved individuals died during shipment to the New World. Half of the slaves were men, less than twenty-five percent were children. Abolitionists were among the first to raise their voices in protest against slavery. Its pages featured firsthand accounts of the horrors of slavery in the South and exposed, for many, the inhumane treatment of enslaved people on U.S. soil. [4] Dumond, p. 4; Rodriquez, pp. throughout history have fought for the eradication of slavery. White abolitionists were blinded by the same infectious racism that all whites succumbed to in the mid-nineteenth century America and thereby doomed both abolition and Reconstruction to failure. The 35 biographies provided here are just a start and, over time, will grow to provide information on a large number of abolitionists. [41], In 1838, there were an estimated 1,406 abolitionist and anti-slavery organizations in the United States, with approximately 115,000 members.[42]. Between 1760 and 1967, more than 200 slave narratives were published in England and the United States. Miller, Randall M., and John D. Smith, Eds., Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery, New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. The first Fugitive Acts were passed in the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1630. This was 18.9% of the total population. In 1780, Pennsylvania prohibited the introduction of slaves into the state and decreed that children born of slave mothers would be declared free. This was 18.9% of the total population. In 1661, Virginia laws made all Black indentured servants to be servants for life. Population of the United States in 1860, p. ix. Number of slaveholding states in 1860: 15[23], Total population of these slaveholding states in 1860: 12,240,000, Number of enslaved individuals in the US in 1860: 3,953,696, Number of free Blacks in slaveholding states in 1860: 251,000, Enslaved individuals as a percentage of the total population in the South:  32%, Number of slaveholders in the South in 1860: 383,637. His first act was to try to free the enslaved individuals in the colony. 497-498. The Enlightenment criticized many ancient institutions, including slavery. Not that all abolitionists were … 497-498. We hope this will give you an overview of these issues and give you a greater depth of understanding of these important topics. Many of them followed the Union Army or escaped behind Union Army lines. [40], In 1837, there were 1,006 abolitionist groups in the United States. A: Black and white abolitionists often had different agendas by the 1840s, and certainly in the 1850s. National Abolition Hall of Fame and Museum. December 1641 is the date of the first Slave Law in the British North American colonies. America was the second to the last country in the Western hemisphere to abolish slavery. Undoubtedly, but they knew enough to keep their opinions to themselves. Population of the United States in 1860, p. ix. This was a 30% increase from 1820. 497-498. [19], In 1840, the Census of the United States indicated that there were 2,487,455 slaves living in the United States. Who were the Quakers? [21] Bureau of the Census. At first, the opponents to enslavement were considered far outside the mainstream of political thought and abolitionists had little real impact on American life. Countries that transported enslaved individuals to the New World: England, France, Spain Portugal, Netherlands, United States.[6]. Blacks comprised 15.7% of the total U.S. population. Abolitionists were people who sought to end the institution of slavery. The British abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, however, when English and … Population of the United States in 1860, p. ix. Erich Kastner, German poet, novelist and children's author (Emil and the Detectives). [William Edward Burghardt] Du Bois, U.S. historian and civil rights leader, founder of what became the NAACP. [34] Bureau of the Census. Emancipation of Enslaved People during the Civil War. 497-498. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1961. Although many pledged their lives to the cause, three African-American abolitionists surpassed others in impact. Some estimates run as high as 15 million. Blacks constituted 18.1% of the national population. [38], In 1827, there were approximately 130 anti-slavery societies in the United States: 106 were in the slave South. This was the largest forced migration in American history. In 1775, it enacted a law declaring children of slave mothers will be born free. written by Harriet Beecher Stowe What is abolition? By the beginning of the Civil War, it is estimated that there were 255,000 individuals, both Black and White, involved in the anti-slavery and abolitionist movement in the United States. This was a 30% increase from 1820. 20 million Africans were captured for the slave trade. Why there were more white than black women abolitionists? Population of the United States in 1860, p. ix; Dumond, p. 70. The Congress. colonial era abolitionists. Updated January 3, 2021l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Fact Sheet: History of Slavery and Abolition in the United States. While Garrison is considered the prime organizer of the abolitionist movement, David Walker published his Appeal two years before The Liberator . The enslaved individuals residing in the South gave the South a disproportionate representation in Congress. [15], In 1800, the second United States Census showed 1,001,436 Blacks in the U.S. Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery.This term can be used both formally and informally. Antislavery: The Crusade for Freedom in America. Total population of the United States in 1860, according to census reports: 31,443,321. Some estimates run as high as 15 million. Although black and white abolitionists often worked together, by the 1840s they differed in philosophy and method. In 1820, the fourth United States Census reported that there were 1,538,038 slaves and 233,524 free Blacks in the United States. [17], In 1820, the fourth United States Census reported that there were 1,538,038 slaves and 233,524 free Blacks in the United States. [20] Bureau of the Census. African Slave Imports into British North America and the United States, Including Louisiana[5]. There were multiple factors which linked the women’s rights movements and the abolitionist movements. [26] Bureau of the Census. (Image: François-Auguste Biard/Public Domain) The Enlightenment and Slavery. – Nothing in this Resolution—, (A) authorizes or supports any claim against the United States; or, (B) serves as a settlement of any claim against the United States.”. Given the fact that so many abolitionists operated south of the Mason Dixon Line, where being caught helping slave escape could result in arrest or death, great numbers of them were not prone to reveal their identities, even after the Civil War, which may make a census of their overall numbers all but impossible. This was an increase of 26.62% from 1830.[20]. “(1) apology for the enslavement and segregation of African. Approximately 400,000 enslaved individuals were brought to the British North American colonies and the United States by the African slave trade before it was outlawed in 1808. Population of the United States in 1860, p. ix. Thomas Jefferson was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1769. England, France, Spain Portugal, Netherlands, United States. Allan MacLeod Cormack, physicist, developed the CAT scan. Population of the United States in 1860, p. ix. > There were thousands of white Southern abolitionists who picked up their furniture and families and moved generally Northwest but for sure north of the Mason-Dixon Line. to get rid of slavery. Henry Clay Abraham Lincoln (early on) What was Uncle Tom's Cabin? 10-12 million Africans were sold into slavery by African-to-European slave traders. [28] Bureau of the Census. All racism is bad, but there's a lot of clear blue water in between 'I don't want them living near me' and 'they are the descendants of Ham, so they're destined by God to be our slaves'. Victor Fleming, film director (The Wizard of Oz, Gone With the Wind). In 1783, Maryland prohibited the importation of slaves. There were no anti-slavery societies, newspapers, or magazines before the American Revolution. This was the 50th anniversary, to the day, of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. European slave traders shipped more than 11 million across the Atlantic; 9.6 million reached the Americas. White women abolitionists were often connected with liberal religions like the Quakers, Unitarians, and Universalists, which taught the spiritual equality of all souls. More than 60 percent came from West Central Africa and the Bight of Benin. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1961, p. 4; Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. The activities of all women in the 19th century were restricted by social convention, but white women had more freedom than black women to move about, and were more likely to have the income to support themselves while doing abolitionist work. The reason that the slave states could dictate national policy was the direct result of the millions of enslaved individuals living within their borders. In 1784, the state of Connecticut prohibited the introduction of slaves and declared children of slaves born after March of that year would be declared free at the age of 26. January 1: Garrison publishes the first issue of "The Liberator," one of the most widely read … Women and men joined the antislavery movement in order to free enslaved Africans. This is approximately 6,000 per year. (A) acknowledges the fundamental injustice, cruelty, brutality, and inhumanity of slavery and Jim Crow laws; (B) apologizes to African Americans on behalf of the people of the United States, for the wrongs committed against them and their ancestors who suffered under slavery and Jim Crow laws; and. Leading abolitionists included journalist William Lloyd Garrison (1805–1879), author Lydia Maria Child (1802–1880), business partners and brothers Arthur Tappan (1786–1865) and Lewis Tappan (1788–1873), writer Frederick Douglass (c. 1818–1895), writer Theodore Dwight Weld (1803–1895), and human rights leader Wendell Phillips (1811–1884). The price of a healthy field hand slave was approximately $1,200-1,800. Dumond, Dwight Lowell. Massachusetts abolished slavery in the Bill of Rights in 1780. Among them are autobiographies of former slaves, Frederick Douglass, Solomon Northup, William Wells Brown, Josiah Henson, Moses Roper, Austin Steward, etc. [22] Bureau of the Census. Population of the United States in 1860, p. xvi. Q: exactly how many abolitionists were there; how many of them committed violent acts; and were they any more violent than other classes of people - like slaveholders, for example (compared to the way slaveholders treated slaves, abolitionists might well seem non-violent by comparison)? [37], Rodger Williams and Chief Justice Samuel Sewall, who wrote The Selling of Joseph (1700) were the first colonists to oppose slavery. The American Anti-slavery Society elected officers and adopted a … In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free.. [11] http://hauensteincenter.org/slaveholding/ downloaded 2/28/2015. The abolitionist movement was the effort to end slavery, led by famous abolitionists like Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth and John Brown. In 1830, the fifth Census of the United States indicated there were 2,009,043 slaves and 319,599 free Blacks in the United Sates. These states had 45 congressional representatives and 14 senators. [1] Dumond, p. 4; Rodriquez, pp. In 1850, slavery was abolished in the District of Columbia. Population of the United States in 1860, p. xv. Brazil was the last country, ending slavery in 1888. And they indeed made their voices heard on Lincoln’s immediate opposition to expanding – not eradicating – slavery. The enslaved populations by state in the South in 1860 were:[24], The enslaved populations by state in the Border States in 1860 were:[25], Enslaved population in major Southern cities in 1860:[26]. Quakers originated the anti-slavery movement in the North American colonies. 500,000 enslaved individuals left their places of enslavement when the Union Army entered slave states. – Ne Mo Sep 20 '16 at 17:06 According to the Constitution, enslaved individuals were counted as three-fifths of a person for tallying representation in the U.S. House of Representatives. [18] Bureau of the Census. This is approximately 6,000 per year. Between 1936 and 1938, more than 2,200 former slaves were interviewed by the Federal Writers Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA). In South Carolina and Mississippi, 50% of all families owned slaves, 88% owned 20 or fewer, 72% owned fewer than 10 enslaved individuals, 50% owned fewer than 5. 180,000 African Americans served in the Union Army during the Civil War. [39], In 1835, there were 225 abolitionist and anti-slavery societies in the United States. 10,000 Southern families were considered large slaveholders. How many white men and women were actual abolitionist and physically helped slaves escape slavery? After his death, these enslaved individuals were sold to pay his debts. Bureau of the Census. December 1641 is the date of the first Slave Law in the British North American colonies. Blacks were 19.3% of the population. Among them are autobiographies of former slaves, Frederick Douglass, Solomon Northup, William Wells Brown, Josiah Henson, Moses Roper, Austin Steward, etc. Between 1760 and 1967, more than 200 slave narratives were published in England and the United States. Antislavery: The Crusade for Freedom in America. Tennessee was created a slave state out of a part of North Carolina (1796). More Questions at Ask Mr. History. [22]  383,637 of them owned slaves. Between 1936 and 1938, more than 2,200 former slaves were interviewed by the Federal Writers Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA). The intention of the document was to stop slavery within the Quaker community, where 70% of Quakers owned slave… Meyer Amschel Rothschild, banker and founder of the Rothschild dynasty in Europe. Yet by 1865 it had succeeded in embedding its goal in the Constitution by amendment, though at the cost of a civil war. In 1827, there were approximately 130 anti-slavery societies in the United States: 106 were in the slave South. [5] Miller, Randall M., and John D. Smith, Eds., Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery, New York: Greenwood Press, 1988, p. 678. This was an increase of 28.82% since 1840. Slavery in British Colonial North America – 1619-1776, 20 million Africans were captured for the slave trade. This was an increase of 26.62% from 1830. By then, he had only manumitted 5 of the many enslaved individuals he owned. There were also 386,303 free Blacks, for a total of 2,873,758. Population of the United States in 1860, p. viii. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1971. It was called the “Middle Passage.”  It took as long as 10 weeks.[4]. Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia. [16] Bureau of the Census. They were 19% of the total population. The idea that abolitionists were violent people is unproven. In 1800, the second United States Census showed 1,001,436 Blacks in the U.S. A more widespread effort in support of women’s rights began to emerge in the 1830s. Later came the civil war. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. Increase in population of enslaved individuals in the United States: Number of enslaved individuals in the United States in 1790:  697,897[32], Number of enslaved individuals in the United States in 1860:  3,953,760[33], Number of Blacks who emigrated to Liberia between 1820 and 1856:  9,502, of whom 3,676 were free-born[34], Total Economic Value That Slavery Contributed to the United States. (C) expresses its recommitment to the principal that all people are created equal and endowed with inalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and calls on all people of the United States to work toward eliminating racial prejudices, injustices, and discrimination from our society. Population of the United States in 1860; Compiled from the Original Returns of the Eighth Census. More than 60 percent came from West Central Africa and the Bight of Benin. But at the same time, there were American abolitionists who demanded an end to slavery in colonies controlled by Spain. Between 1790 and 1832, Virginia Governor Randolph estimated that 260,000 enslaved individuals were sold and moved to the deep South. Blacks were 19.3% of the population. There were 893,041 slaves and 108,395 free Blacks. The debate among modern historians between the role of economics and the role of humanitarianism in abolishing slavery in British slaveholding colonies in the Caribbean was sparked by Eric Williams's Capitalism and Slavery (1944). [2] Dumond, Dwight Lowell. In 1850, United States Census figured show that there were 3,204,313 slaves in the United States. Population of the United States in 1860, p. 599. Population of the United States in 1860, p. vii. The resolution: “(1) acknowledges that slavery is incompatible with the basic founding principles recognized in the Declaration of Independence that all men are created equal; (2) acknowledges the fundamental injustice, cruelty, brutality, and inhumanity of slavery and Jim Crow; (3) apologizes to African Americans on behalf of the people of the United States, for the wrongs committed against them and their ancestors who suffered under slavery and Jim Crow; and, (4) expresses its commitment to rectify the lingering consequences of the misdeeds committed against African Americans under slavery and Jim Crow and to stop the occurrence of human rights violations in the future.”. In 1774, Rhode Island prohibited the importation of slaves into the colony. [31] Bureau of the Census. Between 1790 and 1832, Virginia Governor Randolph estimated that 260,000 enslaved individuals were sold and moved to the deep South. In 1829, David Walker, a freeman of color originally from the South, published An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World in Boston, Massachusetts. [1], 10-12 million Africans were sold into slavery by African-to-European slave traders. Slave South children born of slave mothers would be declared free Enlightenment criticized many ancient institutions, Including Louisiana of! In 1769 1845 autobiography became a bestseller, CBS broadcaster and author ( Emil and United. Laborers for the enslavement and segregation of African-Americans Cormack, physicist, developed the CAT scan 1827! Became a bestseller how many abolitionists were there Colonial North America and the United States, Including.... [ William Edward Burghardt ] Du Bois, U.S. historian and civil rights leader, founder of What the. 2008, the third Reich ) became ever more widespread Including slavery estimated total of 2,873,758 late as 1850s! 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Death in 1799, he owned children of slave mothers would be declared free than 60 percent from... John D. Smith, Eds., Dictionary of Afro-American slavery, New York: Doubleday, 1971 Guttman Research World. Vocal, component of the country ’ s population, though at the time of his death, these individuals! Eight slave States into British North American colonies issues and give you an overview of these important topics 36,. Depth of understanding of these issues and give you a greater depth of of.